Creating a production ready API with Python and Django Rest Framework – part 3
Posted on Sun 12 March 2017 in Development • Tagged with API, Django, framework, Python, rest, tutorial
In the previous part we implemented authentication, permissions and the possibility to POST new products for admins. In this new episode we will see how to implement details management, relations between models, nested APIs and a different level of permissions.
If you haven't completed the previous parts or if you want to begin from this one, checkout the right code first:
git checkout tutorial-1.10
Handling Product Details
Our current API methods allow us to list all the products we have in our catalog and to create a new one (if we have admin permissions), but what if we wanted to delete or update a single one? What if we wanted to get only a specific product? We need to handle details.
As first thing we need to change the ProductSerializer to return the id of the product. Edit catalog/serializers.py and change the class in this way:
class ProductSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer): class Meta: model = Product fields = ('id', 'name', 'description', 'price')
After changing the serializer we need to implement a new view called ProductDetail. Edit catalog/views.py and add the following imports:
from django.http import Http404 from rest_framework.response import Response from rest_framework.views import APIView from rest_framework import status
and the following class:
class ProductDetail(APIView): def get_object(self, pk): try: return Product.objects.get(pk=pk) except Product.DoesNotExist: raise Http404 def get(self, request, pk, format=None): product = self.get_object(pk) serializer = ProductSerializer(product) return Response(serializer.data) def put(self, request, pk, format=None): product = self.get_object(pk) serializer = ProductSerializer(product, data=request.data) if serializer.is_valid(): serializer.save() return Response(serializer.data) return Response(serializer.errors, status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST) def delete(self, request, pk, format=None): product = self.get_object(pk) product.delete() return Response(status=status.HTTP_204_NO_CONTENT)
let's connect the new view to the urls, editing catalog/urls.py and changing the code in this way:
urlpatterns = [ url(r'^products/$', views.ProductList.as_view()), url(r'^products/(?P<pk>[0-9]+)/$', views.ProductDetail.as_view()), ]
If we try to PUT, DELETE or GET a product like /products/1/ we can now update, delete or retrieve an existing item, but there is a little problem: we haven't set any permission on this class, so anyone can do it. The previous view was also more compact, why don't we use a generic view to perform these basic operations? Let's refactor ProductDetail with a RetrieveUpdateDestroyAPIView generic class. Open catalog/views.py and change the class code in this way:
class ProductDetail(generics.RetrieveUpdateDestroyAPIView): queryset = Product.objects.all() serializer_class = ProductSerializer permission_classes = (IsAdminOrReadOnly, )
That's it! With just three lines of code we have now implemented the same feature of the previous class, plus we have set the correct permissions.
To checkout the code at this point:
git checkout tutorial-1.12
Reviews - Relations between models
As many online catalogs already have, it would be nice if our API had an endpoint where it is possible to leave a review for a product and get a list of reviews for a specific product. To implement this feature we need to add a new model to our application. Edit catalog/models.py adding this import:
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
and this Django model:
class Review(models.Model): product = models.ForeignKey(Product, related_name='reviews') title = models.CharField(max_length=255) review = models.TextField() rating = models.IntegerField() created_by = models.ForeignKey(User)
after creating the model, please remember to create the related DB migration:
$ ./manage.py makemigrations catalog
When the model is ready, we have to do some changes to the serializers. First of all we need to write a new one, for our new Review model. Then we have to change our ProductSerializer so that it will return its related reviews. Each Product can have multiple Review. And each Review will be always linked to a specific Product. Edit catalog/serializers.py and change it in this way:
from .models import Product, Review from rest_framework import serializers class ReviewSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer): created_by = serializers.ReadOnlyField(source='created_by.username') class Meta: model = Review fields = ('id', 'title', 'review', 'rating', 'created_by') class ProductSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer): reviews = ReviewSerializer(many=True, read_only=True) class Meta: model = Product fields = ('id', 'name', 'description', 'price', 'reviews')
Note: in ReviewSerializer when we serialise the user contained in created_by field, return the username instead of the id (to make it more human readable). Another important thing to notice is that the value of the related_name we have set in the Review model must match with the field name we have added in ProductSerializer fields property. In this case we have set it to reviews.
At this point we need to add a new view. Edit catalog/views.py and add the following imports:
from rest_framework.permissions import IsAuthenticatedOrReadOnly from .models import Product, Review from .serializers import ProductSerializer, ReviewSerializer
then add this class:
class ReviewList(generics.ListCreateAPIView): queryset = Review.objects.all() serializer_class = ReviewSerializer permission_classes = (IsAuthenticatedOrReadOnly, ) def perform_create(self, serializer): serializer.save( created_by=self.request.user, product_id=self.kwargs['pk'])
As you can notice, I had to customise the perform_create method because the default one doesn't know anything about the fact we want to set the created_by and product_id fields. Finally we need to bind this new view to a specific url, so we need to edit catalog/urls.py and add this:
... url(r'^products/(?P<pk>[0-9]+)/reviews/$', views.ReviewList.as_view()), ]
At this point any authenticated user should be able to POST a review for a product and anyone should be able to get the list of reviews for each product. If you have any problem with the code and want to move to this point, please checkout this:
git checkout tutorial-1.13
Nested APIs details
To complete our API endpoints for Review, we need to add an additional feature that will let users to edit/delete their own review. Before implementing the new view, we need a little bit of refactoring and a new permission class. Edit catalog/permissions.py and add this new class:
class IsOwnerOrReadOnly(BasePermission): def has_object_permission(self, request, view, obj): if request.method in SAFE_METHODS: return True return obj.created_by == request.user
Basically this will permit changes to the review only to its author. Now we are going to add new urls and doing some refactoring at the same time. Edit catalog/urls.py and change the urls in this way:
urlpatterns = [ url(r'^products/$', views.ProductList.as_view()), url(r'^products/(?P<product_id>[0-9]+)/$', views.ProductDetail.as_view()), url( r'^products/(?P<product_id>[0-9]+)/reviews/$', views.ReviewList.as_view() ), url( r'^products/(?P<product_id>[0-9]+)/reviews/(?P<review_id>[0-9]+)/$', views.ReviewDetail.as_view() ), ]
You may have noticed that I substituted pk with product_id. In the latest url I added, we need to be able to identify two primary keys: the one for the product and the one for the review. I renamed the previous ones for consistency. Now it's time to add the new view for Review details. Edit catalog/view.py and add this class:
class ReviewDetail(generics.RetrieveUpdateDestroyAPIView): serializer_class = ReviewSerializer permission_classes = (IsAuthenticatedOrReadOnly, IsOwnerOrReadOnly) lookup_url_kwarg = 'review_id' def get_queryset(self): review = self.kwargs['review_id'] return Review.objects.filter(id=review)
What are we doing here? You may have noticed that we set a new property called lookup_url_kwarg. That property is being used to determine the keyword in urls.py to be used for the primary key lookup.
You will also need to do some refactoring to the other views, to adapt them to the changes we just did to the urls. I suggest you to have a look at the diffs here: https://github.com/andreagrandi/drf-tutorial/compare/tutorial-1.13...tutorial-1.14 or you can have a look at the whole file here https://github.com/andreagrandi/drf-tutorial/blob/541bf31c11fd1dbf2bcc1d31312086995e3e5b48/drftutorial/catalog/views.py
In alternative, you can fetch the whole source code at this point:
git checkout tutorial-1.14
In this third part of the tutorial you learned how to handle model details in the API and how relations between different model work. In the next part of the tutorial we will do something we should have done since the beginning: adding tests to our code and learn how to properly test the API.
If you enjoyed this tutorial, please leave me some feedback! I really want to improve my work, based on the users feedback so any little advice will be appreciated, thanks!